Sabtu, 29 Januari 2011

Name Derivation of Galuh

Preface
On 16-19 May, in Tasikma­laya held history seminar and culture about Galuh. the seminar is held by University of Siliwangi Tasikmalaya in cooperation with National Archeology Research (Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional) and France Institute for Far East (Lembaga Penelitian Prancis untuk Timur Jauh) talking about Galuh History previewed from several studies, i.e epigraphi, filology, archeology, numismatik etc.

To get clear understanding about “Galuh”, Drs. Atja, a historian write a paper.

Toponym about a place is very important for a history study because in it contains historical value both habitat and human live in it. Besides, naming of a place is part elements in that place by considering environments, mithology, legend, history etc. The name in question is “Galuh”, and other place linked with it.

An expert who has big concern about the name of “Galuh” is the late Prof. Dr. R. Ng Poerbatjaraka (read: Purbocoroko). He wrote special paper about Galuh in a magazine “Baha­sa dan Budaya”. third year, Number .2, December 1954, page 6-10, with title: “3 Galuh”.

To found lexical meaning, he opened Java dictionary (Geric­ke & Roorda 1901, II), galuh, Kw. zva. more or less princess (Skt. galu, or kind of diamond). KN name of a regency if Cerbon karesidenan, in old colonial government. In Purwodarminto dictionary; galuh kl. (old poem) ratna (diamond); putri (princess). In Kw. Bal. Ned. Wdb Van den Tuuk, word ga­luh explained specifically, but the meaning not separated from diamond and princess, II. Name of Kingdom in ancient Java.

Galuh as a name of kingdom in ancient Java, Prof. Poerbatjaraka said :

I. Exist almost in every Serat Babad that talk about “its age”. He gave example in Serat Babad #1 stored in Lembaga Bahasa dan Budaya (now: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa), page. 257, about war of Raja Banjaransari that fight with genie queen in Galuh.

II. Babad Tanah Jawi, as Arya Bangah state (ed. Meinsma-Olthof 1941).

III. In Serat Aji Saka, as Sindula king, father of Sang De­wata-cengkar, this Galuh state talked when attacked by Dewata-cengkar, so ilang become utan. (Serat Aji Saka oleh CF Winter 1857).

IV. In Carita Parahiyang­an, as Raja Sanjaya state. Although all of the above are only tale but they are close to history(Riwayat Indo­nesia I 1952: 61).

V. Galuh added with Ujung, become Ujung-Galuh, place name, that is said that bula waste sang Jayakatwang, a king in Kediri by Raden Wijaya, the first king of Majapahit (Pararaton 1920).

VI. Galuh added with pra- become Pragaluh, is a name of village of area, that exist on writing stone, in Gandasuli village (Ke­du), located in its original place (De Casparis 1950: 62). This information has high epigraphy value, with important historical knowledge.

VII. Galuh as a name of Earth science in Java Land, in book of CM Pleyte, an expert in sundanese science, said that Galuh now is (ongeveer) or Ciamis. (Pleyte 1913: (282).

Prof. Poerbatjaraka point to name of a village: Begalon, around Keraton Surakarta, according to tradition, the village is lived by employee for brushing diamond. It is said that in the beginning, the village name must be: Pegalon, taken from Pegaluan from pegaluhan from galuh pula. Perhaps information about “place for employee for brushing diamond” after galuh entitle “diamond”. Thus Prof. Poerbatjaraka launch a question; is it possible that the village formerly owned by employee of silver employer of big ceremonies like lancang, sumbul, bokor etc, because the village located near Kawatan. Sayangan and “kemasan”.

Prof. Poerbatjaraka state that Galuh as name of a place located in real Java Land in West, so the meaning is land -, area -, or Galuh state is land-, area -, or silver country.

In the #4 writing title Bagelen, about the word, he point to a series of word: Pegalon from Pega­lon, from Pegaluan, from Pegaluhan, from Galuh. Thus the name of Bagelen from Pagelen, from Pegalian, from Pegalihan, from Ga­lih. The Galih is smooth (krama) version of Galuh. Prof. Poerbatja­raka warned not to mix krama form with krama word. Kata krama in question is putra, krama, anak ngoko; griya krama, omah ngoko. As a friends of galuh word, he shows several example series: pang­guh; panggih; lungguh; linggih; sungguh; singgih; suruh; sirih. So according to several example, Prof. Poerbatjaraka persist that, that Pegalihan is krama form from Pegaluhan, Galih from Galuh; and Galih is exist in Sundanese tale that it is a name of old state but added with Pakuan becomes Galuh Pakuan.

In that case, conclusion pulled by Prof. Poerbatjaraka, if information about Galuh and Bagelen combined, so history of daerah aliran Sungai Bagawanta – Serayu – Citanduy, in old age, is under authority of Ga­luh kingdom that the center is in a place that now called Ciamis in West Java.

1. To trace history growing of Galuh as a center of authority of ancient kings, almost could be said that impossible to get support from prasasti-prasasti or other old heritage and strange information, the only one information is text, the oldest could be read only several from the end of 16th century and several from 17th. Different with copiying sistem in Balinese culture, because of strong bond to religion, they tried to copy the text as same as possbile, without tolerance on small mistakes. While writers in West Java obey religion that different with the contains of the text about old believe, they feel free to do creative copiying, according to interest of people funding it.

In talking about Galuh, there are several texts, published or not, that considered has history value, in time meaning the text written, which the content of course bond to cultural code of the people.

Definition of history (“sejarah” or “sa­jarah”) in that time is stam­boom, not geschiedenis or his­tory. But “sejarah” in Japanese colonial era used to replace term geschiedenis, that forbidden to be used in schools in that time, whereas the closer meaning is “tarikh”.

On usage in that time “sejarah”, replaced freely with “silsilah”, which in South Filipines called “tarsilah” (Majul 1977, 1989).

Term “sejarah” basically is a kind of “note”, about written ancestor. One of the its main function is to track ancestor or family to link to famous people in the past, perhaps politician or religion teacher. This reality gave impression that writing in “se­jarah” didn’t mean to be document in sejarah. On the contrary, text functioned to support individuals and support to get political authority or enjoying traditional special privileges, or at least enjoying high status among people in its society.

Thus, to serve the goal, so word “seja­rah” must be maintained so as to not left behind. If it is written in bad material which is tend to broken like paper, so the content need to be maintained by copiying to new paper. Thus, age of the material is sign or proof of authenticity. (Majul 1989: 98-9).

If studiying several texts that considered contain “sejarah”, that seem variety, don’t directly take it as a document contan silsilah that show mistake. It is true that silsilah could contain giving about several big man, place names and real data from past event, but added with mith element, which mean to fulfill several goal outside genea­logical function of the man in question. May be for a goal, several names not mentioned, for example to prevent several ancestor not to take authority.

2. The following informations are taken from several texts:

Kitab Waruga Jagat (KWJ) is a small part of a text, that now stored in Museum Yayasan Pangeran Sumedang (YPS) in Sumedang. Other part of the text is a kind parimbon, which contain many things, as a note related to star, in Melayu literature called pestaka (vademecum).

Several texts not from paper, but daluwang daluwang (Java : dluwang), made from tree skin “saeh”.

The text is quarto size. The part which is mentioned by KWJ written in pegon (Java written in Arabic letter), with Java-Sundanese language, contain 12 sheets.

Apart from text above, in YPS museum; stored also another text, the most interesting is Silsilah of Sumedang regents, written in Pegon, using European paper, folio size, written in name of Ra­den Adipati Suryalaga II, who had ever become regent in Bogor, Karawang and Sukapura, his life in the same age with Pangeran Kornel, in 18-19th century.

Another text made from daluwang in very bad condition, intially it is difficult to guess, using Java-Sundanese that is difficult to be read, in form of poem (Sundanese : wawacan). In the beginning of 1972 together with Drs. Didi Suryadi the late, I tried to read the guidelines. Eventually, a love story founded love story between Mundingsari with princess Amber­kasih in Sindangkasih state. After the part known, it could be determined that the broken text is one of version of Babad Siliwangi, or perhaps a copy of Babad Siliwangi that now stored in National Mu­seum (now in National Library Jakar­ta), and with same title the text written by Ra­den Panji Surya Wijaya, Betawi, 1866 (Poerbatjaraka 1933: 293). The text has been mentioned too in Cariosan (word of) Prabu Silih­wangi edited by Sunarto & Viviene Sukanda-Tessier (1983). Basically KWJ explains chain of big man that have ever hold important role in sejarah, colored by believes lslamisation espescially in West Java.

In KWJ, in addition study about kings that are believed by traditional society have ever rule in Indonesia, related also with kings who have role in religion teaching in Islamic world, which is according to its writer, all of them related one another. It is a real meaning.

Lets talk about word “wa­ruga”, there is a meaning given by CM Pleyte in his book: “De Patapaan Adjar Soekaresi, andere gezegd de kluizenarij op de Goenoeng Padang”, TBG, 55, page. 380, note 2, he tries to define waruga, in case of talking about Carita Waruga Guru. Pleyte writes, meaning of waruga: belichaming, lichaam (body), and lijf (body). From the three meaning given by Pleyte, the closer meaning is belichaming.

Word waruga in old Javanese language as written by Prof. Zoetmulder (1982: 2211), a Mind of building (“bale”? hall, pendopo?), while in other place: waruga I a part. official or functionary. Van der Tuuk (1901) write about the meaning waruga in several related languages, in Balinese, waruga : bale, Sasak, barugaq; bale; Bima, paru­ga: houses on cemetry; Sangir, bahugha, Rejang, Bugis, Makasar, baruga; Lampung, parugan, berugu (read: baruga), building like dome in front of house of weaver woman; Bengkulu, brogo- room for sitting
.

3. On page 12, written kolofon, sound: tamat kitab waruga jagat tutug ing tulis ing malem Sala­sa wulan Rayagung ping 8 tahun alip 1117 hijrah. kang gaduh mas ngabehi prana. (Completion Kitab Wa­ruga Jagat, finished written on Monday night, Zulhijjah, 8, Year of Alip, 1117 Hijri (23 March 1706), owned by Mas Ngabehi Prana.

This Kitab Waruga Jagat then completed with paririmbon, consist of :

(a) Copy of Barzanji book and Pry of Prophet Birthday; (b) Explanation about farming; (c) Explanation about uga zaman.

Another version of Kitab Waruga Jagat now stored in Library University of Leiden, (Juyboll 1912: 70­71, CXXVI. (Cod. 239 (Bijb. Gen.), in a file, consists of four parts, 44 pages, consist of :

(a) Waruga Jagat (page. 1-23). list of series of bloodline from Adam to Nuh (Enoh) untill Pangeran Saba Kingkin (Hasanuddin), the language is more to Javanese that Sundanese (meer Javaansch than Soenda­neesch); (b) Waruga jagat or Ba­bad Pajajaran (page. 23-33), about the same bloodline list but written in Sundanese and some of it talk about Islam; (c) Tale of Ki Bas­ra, the contain is a tale in Sundanese, and (d) The contain is seven questions with its answer in Sundanese. Juyboll didn’t mention the size of the text, the text material and kind of letter used in it, as well as year when it was written.

4. H. Said Raksakusumah (late), was working on a text with title: Kitab Pacakaki Masalah Karuhun Kabeh, a text which is owned by Cisondari people, South Bandung. His working result are translation and short explanation in bahasa Indonesia (1973). The text written in pe­gon with Sundanese-Javanese language, but didn’t mention the material where it was written whether paper or daluwang.

In colofon on last page unfortunately noted by him as follow: “Kitab Paca­kaki Masalah Karuhun Kabeh…. dipedalkeunana di Pamarican tang­gal 15 bulan…. Rabu akhir tahun Dal Hjrah 1271. Because month unreadable, – may be because the text broken – 1271 Hiji = 1854/5 Christ.

H. Said Raksakusumah copy contains of the book, consist: (a) Sejarah writing; (b) Adjectives 20; (c) Compilation of pry like Nur­buat pry. Then mentioned that writer explained sejarah in Java island according to definition of word sejarah in its age, i.e giving bloodline (silsilah) of man having authority in society, both politic and spiritual. (Said Raksaku­sumah 1973: 1).

Reality that we face show that writing of KWJ, on 1117 Hijri (1706 Christ), not mentioning where it was written, perhaps Sumedang, while Kitab Pacakaki Masalah Karuhun Kabeh written on 1272 Hijri (1854/5 Christ) in Pamari­can, South Ciamis. Considering writing time difference more or less 150 years, distance between Su­medang and Pamarican is far enough, we could assume that writer in Pamarican not using KWJ Sumedang as example.

Carita Waruga Guru (CWG)

This text tranliterated and translated into Dutch and talked by Pleyte (1913), as I have ever mentioned. According to Pleyte the text was founded from ka­buyutan in Kawali (Ciamis regency).

Text “Carita Waruga Guru” (CWG) written in European paper with black ink with size more or less 20 x 15 cm.24 pages. The difference with KWJ and “Ki­tab Pacakaki” (….) that has been mentioned, the both use pegon, CWG written by letter pre-Islam, the pattern like in text “Carita Parahiyangan”, written in lontar (rontal), that found also in Galuh area, with little differences, for example letter /ba with two forms. But it is different with buda or gunung letter, that found on texts and on Merapi-Merbabu mountain, like explained in thesis Van Der Molen (1983), or Kantara Wiryamartana (1987). The letter on CWG perhaps has been made its table in Holle book (1882), # 91, 92: Ms. Van Galoeh (lontar), not having far differences with label that I have made in “Carita Ratu Pakuan” (1969: 25), and entitled ak­sara Sunda Kuno.

Language in CWG not having far differences with language in “Ca­rita Parahiyangan”, but Arabic vocabulary and story of prophets has given big impression. I quoted example from page 1 :

( … )

eta kanyahokeun ratu ga­-

luh kerna bijil ti alam gaib nya

nabi adam di heula ratu galuh di-

enggonkeun sasaka slam dunya.

( … )

From the short quotation above, Arabic words that has been used are alam, gaib, nabi Adam, alam du­nya. And prophets, Nabi Adam (page. 2, 3, 5), Nabi Isis (page. 2, 5), Nabi Enoh (page. 2, 3, 5. 8, 11), from “roman” Amir Hamza, place name : Mesir (page. 1), Gunung Mesir (page. 1), Ratu Mesir (page. 6), and Selong (hlm. 5, 8), gunung jabal kap (page. 1), and Alamdaur (page. 6) and Seh Majusi (page. 11), and darmasiksa (page. 7, 8, 9, 11, 21).

If we make a comparation between content of KWJ with CWG, basically, many same things. Text of KWJ owned YPS, because in bad condition, is unreadable and I tried to guess base on names on CWG. For example although it has little differences: KWJ (page. 1) babar buwana: CWG (page. 2) babarbawa­na; KWJ (page. 1) … gantungan: CWG (page. 2), gandulgantung; KWJ (page. 1) sayar: CWG (page. 2) siar; KWJ (page. 2) ratu … tasari: CWG (page. 9) ratu perwatasari.

About flood that happen in Prophet Noah age (Nuh), between the two text, there is a samething, talked that Java Island not flooded because Ratu Ga­luh (KWJ, page. 3, 4), or Ratu Perwatasari Jagat (CWG, page. 9), has create a high mountain to the sky (this is only a tale of course) and all of citizen ordered to went up to top of the mountain. After water went down, everybody on top came to place called Bojonglopang.

Why the two man in the text called Ratu Ga­luh? According to KWJ (page. 3), because: cahya kang metu saking netra (light that goes out from eye), but according to CWG (page. 11), because: lebak karagragan cibanu eluh, mana jumeneng Ratu Galuh (valley droopped by tears, so became Ratu Galuh).

Ratu Galuh then talked has three children (in KWJ from wive from human!), the story talked in page. 12-21, more or less 42% from text bold. The children are Ha­riang Banga, Ciung Manarah and Maraja Sakti. Name Ciung Manarah, also in Kitab Pacaka­ki …. (Said Raksakusumah 1973:4) and on page. 2 in KWJ, on next pages written that Ciung Manara, in every Babad Galuh written in 19/20 century, always written : Ciung Wanara, as written Ciung Wanara in “Carita Pantun”, one of the version has been printed (Pleyte 1911), written Ciung Wanara and Hariang Banga. In “Babad Tanah Jawi” (Olthof edition 1941: 12, 14) written: Siyung Wanara and Ana Banga.

In “Carita Parahiyangan” (Atja 1968: 28-29), there is Sang Manarah, from Bagawat Sajala-jala, that murdered without sin. His father Rahiyang Tamperan or Rakeyan Panaraban, son of Ra­hiyang Sanjaya.

In prasasti Canggal (732 Christ); on 10-11, told that replacing Sang Sanna become king in Java land is Sang Sanjaya, son of Sang Sannaha, daughter of Sang Raja Sanna. Thus Sanjaya is historical person & Poerbatjaraka (1952:95) has write four other acts : a) act, only the year taken, that Sanjaya year 174 = 828 Sa­ka (906/7 Christ), at the time Sang Daksottama still became mahamantri from sang raja Rake Watukura Dyah Balitung; b) act, only the year replace, i.e Sanjaya year 176 = 830 Saka (908/9 Christ). At the time Sang Daksottama has become king in Central Java replaced King Rake Watukura; c) written bone bronze 829 Saka (907/8 Christ) that issued by Raja Rake Watukura, Sang Sanjaya called: Rakai Mata­ram Sang Ratu Sanjaya; d) bone act 1022 Saka? (1100/1 Christ?), baginda called Ra­hiyangta Sanjaya.

Name Panaraban and Manara, listed in a prasasti called Wanua Tngah III (tranliteration I got from Dr. Ayatrohae­di), for clear meaning I quoted part of it (with EYD) :

4. (….) ing saka 706 cetra masa da­sami sukla. pa ka sa. wara angdi­ri rake panaraban, tanninulahu­lah ikanang sawah lan i wanua tngah an tama rikanang bihara i pikatan. ing saka 725 cetramasa sasti sukla. pa u su. wara. mang­diri rakai warakdyah manara. sira ta umabak ikanang sima. pjah rake warak sirang lumah i kelasa ing saka 749 srawanama­sa. caturdasi kresna. (….)

I have no right to make a meaning, but a glimpse in the prasasti name/title Rake Panaraban and rake warak dyah manara (Which I underlined in above quotation), like in “Carita Parahiyang­an” (Atja 1968) there is written: Mojar Rahiyang Sanjaya, ngawarah anak nira Rakeyan Panaraban, inya Ra­hiyang Tamperan. (….) and in another place I quoted: Mangjan­ma inya Sang Manarah, anak Tam­peran, dwa sapilanceukan deung Rahiyang Banga. (….)

If we compare the quotations above, so both of Rake Pana­raban (prasasti Wanua Tngah), or Rakeyan Pararaban or Rahiyan Tamperan (Carita Para­hiyangan) is a name from historical person, as well as Rake Warak Dyah Manara (prasasti Wanua Tngah), and San Manarah (Carita Parahiyangan is a name for historical person. If it is hesitating, compare with name Raksakusuma (Java: Reksokusumo) with Raksakusumah! So: Manara (Java pronounciation) compare Manarah (Sundanese pronounciation). Be patient because Carita Parahiyangan and Carita Waruga Guru written in Sundanese, even Kitab Waruga Jagat although written in Javanese, but Java-Cirebon: wignyan at the end of word not mentioned (cf Smith 1926: 1).

Apart from things mentioned above (7), between the two text in episode Ciung Manarah and Hariang Ba­nga there is a same thing i.e eventually Hariang Banga become King of Majapahit, while Ciung Manarah build Pajajaran kingdom. Then talked that Hariang Banga has children king and queen Majapahit, than Mataram (Islam), and end with mentioning Pangeran Dipati, son of Pangeran Mangkunegara.

According to Pleyte (1913: 403, cf Schrieke 1959: 151), Pangeran Mangkunegara became king Mata­ram on 1719 Christ and rule till 1725, with title Amangkurat IV, then replaced by Pa­ngeran Adipati, with title Pakubuwana II, who role between 1725 till 1749. Thus CWG perhaps arranged in di Mataram Amangkurat IV ruled, or perhaps before. Pleyte give distance of time of CWG arrangement between 1705 – 1709, because in series of blood line mentioned too Susunan Puger, base on contract with VOC on 5 October 1705, inaugurated became Susuhunan Pakubuwana I, after kicking his nephew, Amangkurat III.

Text KWJ mentioned bloodline of Hariang Banga the last is Pangeran Dipati Anom, son of Susuhunan Amang­kurat II, grandson of Susuhunan Tegalwa­ngi (Amangkurat I), thus I assumed that KWJ arranged in Mataram when ruled by Susuhunan Amangkurat II, while its ruling period from 1677 till 1705, at the time Pangeran Dipati Anom inaugurated with title Susuhunan Amangkurat III, that well known with title Sunan Mas, in 1708 after taken his authority by his uncle with help of VOC, Sunan Mas sent to Selon (Veth 1878: 420-1). Kolofon KWJ, as mentioned above, as writer note, finished written in Monday night (Java-Sunda), month Zulhijjah, date 8, year Alip, 1117 Hijri, same with 23 March 1706 Christ (Joac­him Mayr & Bertold Spuler 1961).

Ratu Galuh in CWG and KWJ on Wawacan Sajarah Ga­luh edited by Dr. Edi S Ekadjati (1981: xxvii), called Ra­tu Pusaka, in other versions called Maharaja Adimulya, on Carita Pantun “Ciung Wanara” (Pleyte 1913) Sang Permanadikusumah.

Wawacan “Sajarah Galuh” taken from the editor base on title consideration with all of the content, and the comparing text “Carios Wiwitan Raja-­raja di Pulo Jawa”. The both talked about development of Galuh since standing till ruling of Bupati Galuh: Ra­den Arya Adipati Kusumah di Ningrat (1836-86).

If we study kinds of babad or sajarah, which is written both anonim or mentioning their authors, almost all going back to Ratu Galuh, thus lontar text “Carita Parahiyangan”, although it is found in Galuh, they didn’t know the content.

From “Carita Parahiyangan”, which is written in Sumedang, in 1601 Christ, like explained by Pangeran Wangsakerta in Carita Parahiyangan Sakeng Bhumi Jawa Kulwan, first sargah (CP-1) written episodes of persons of Ratu Galuh who were older.

Translated from :

Pikiran Rakyat, 15-16 May 1990

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